What Is EMI EMC Standards, Types, Procedure (You Need to Know)

What Is EMI EMC Standards, Types, Procedure (You Need to Know)

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) are used for testing and compliance of electronic products. These are the most important terms. Both these terms are considered in the early stage of development so that you can save time and cost for redesigning the product.

If you don’t adhere to these EMI EMC standards, then the government won’t allow you to sell your product to the market. Electromagnetic compatibility of EMC testing can indicate whether a device can exist in the operating environment. The engineers use EMC to protect equipment from the electronic magnetic traditions.

What Are EMC Standards?

EMC standards are electronic devices that create electromagnetic noise. They are basically used by electrical engineers into reaching to the final outcomes. Moreover, EMC standards should protect any devices from interference. They ensure electronic devices can work properly.

Each country has signed common standards to govern the electromagnetic quality of the products. We can always comply with these EMC standards so that the electronic products are legally sold in the market. By adhering to these standards, manufacturers ensure that their products will not interfere with other devices.

Procedure For EMI EMC Testing

Tests included under EMI EMC testing are as follows:

  • Electrostatic Discharge
  • Radiated Emission
  • Conducted Emission
  • Surge
  • Radiated Susceptibility
  • Conducted Susceptibility
  • Electric Fast Transient
  • Voltage Fluctuation and Flicker
  • Current Harmonic Emission
  • Power Frequency Magnetic Field
  • Pulse Frequency Magnetic Field
  • AC Voltage Dips and Interruption
  • DC Voltage Dips and Interruption
  • Ring Wave

EMC Immunity Testing

Here are different types of EMC Immunity testing:

  • 1. ESD Testing: Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is also known as electric shock. It occurs because of the result of built-up static electricity. It can cause IC port damage, communication failures, and damage to the system. If you want to perform ESD Testing, then you can create a short burst of energy that usually ranges between 4kV and 8kV.
  • 2. Surge Immunity Testing: Surge immunity testing is used by electronic devices to withstand. They also protect the system from experiencing performance degradation thus enhancing their reliability and safety.
  • 3. Conducted Immunity Testing: The immunity testing aims to evaluate the potential impact associated with the test (EUT). This type of Testing is done for product reliability and certification purposes.
  • 4. Voltage Drop Testing: Voltage drop testing is used to test actual circuit voltage. The automotive circuit consists of connectors, fuses, relays, and controllers. These components are depending upon the circuit used for Testing.
  • 5. Magnetic Field Testing: Magnetic field testing is used to ensure that the device operates correctly. A magnetic field uses a magnetic field. We all know that electric current produces a magnetic field. In AC, when the magnitude changes, the magnetic field also changes. If there is an excessive current, it ultimately leads to short-circuiting.

Medical devices such as MRIs emit very strong magnetic fields. If people are not immune to these magnetic fields, they can cause disturbances in the system.

Understanding The Difference Between EMC And EMI:

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) are terms often used together, especially when talking about testing electronic devices. Although they sound similar, they mean different things.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

EMI is when electromagnetic energy interferes with how an electronic device works. This interference can come from natural sources such as electricity or other electronic devices.

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

EMC is how well a device can operate without experiencing or experiencing interference from other devices in its environment. EMC testing looks at two main things:

  1. Immunity Test: This checks that the device can handle external electromagnetic energy without any problems.
  2. Emission Test: This measures how much electromagnetic interference the device gives off.

In simple terms, EMI is the interference itself, such as static on the radio, while EMC is about making sure that the device can perform well even with some interference in the surroundings. Devices are designed to tolerate some EMI because they usually cannot avoid it completely. EMC ensures that devices operate smoothly without disturbing or being disturbed by other nearby electronics.

Understanding both EMI and EMC helps manufacturers create reliable electronic devices that can work well in the same space without creating problems for each other.

EMI EMC Standards List

Application AreaCommon EMI/EMC Standards
CommercialFCC Part 15 class B, EN 61000-6-3 (generic), EN 61000-6-1(generic)
IndustrialFCC Part 15 class A, EN 61000-6-4 (generic), EN 61000-6-2(generic)
MedicalIEC 60601-1-2
AutomotiveSAE, ISO7637, IEC CISPR-25, ISO1145-1, ISO1145-2
MilitaryMIL-STD-461, DEF STAN 59/411, MIL-STD-704, MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-1399
Power Station and SubstationIEC TS 61000-6-5
Process Control and MeasurementEN/IEC 61326-1

How To Avoid EMC Failure

When a product ultimately fails EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) testing, it’s a stressful and expensive problem. To prevent this, start compliance testing from the beginning of the project. Checking emissions at every major development stage helps avoid costly retesting and failures.

If you find the problem early, you can fix it right away. This simplifies the entire development process. Imagine making a cake – you taste the batter every step of the way to make sure it’s delicious. Similarly, by checking the product from the design to the final stage, you can catch defects early. This allows you to easily fix them, such as adding an EMI shield or EMS foam to prevent leaks or gaps in the enclosure.

Making pre-compliance testing a key milestone in your project ensures a healthy development process. Treat compliance as an ongoing part of your project, not just a final inspection. This approach reduces the risk of EMC failure and improves the quality of your product.

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